Convert one or two rectangular objects containing lon-lat coordinates into vector or matrix of geodesic distances in metres.

  paired = FALSE,
  sequential = FALSE,
  pad = FALSE,
  measure = "cheap"



Rectangular object (matrix, data.frame, tibble, whatever) containing longitude and latitude coordinates.


Optional second object which, if passed, results in distances calculated between each object in x and each in y.


If TRUE, calculate paired distances between each entry in x and y, returning a single vector.


If TRUE, calculate (vector of) distances sequentially along x (when no y is passed), otherwise calculate matrix of pairwise distances between all points.


If sequential = TRUE values are padded with initial NA to return n values for input with n rows, otherwise return n - 1 values.


One of "haversine" "vincenty", "geodesic", or "cheap" specifying desired method of geodesic distance calculation; see Notes.


If only x passed and sequential = FALSE, a square symmetric matrix containing distances between all items in x; If only x passed and sequential = TRUE, a vector of sequential distances between rows of x; otherwise if y is passed, a matrix of nrow(x) rows and nrow(y) columns. All return values are distances in metres.


measure = "cheap" denotes the mapbox cheap ruler; measure = "geodesic" denotes the very accurate geodesic methods given in Karney (2013) "Algorithms for geodesics" J Geod 87:43-55, and as provided by the codesf::st_dist() function.


n <- 50 # Default "cheap" distance measure is only accurate for short distances: x <- cbind (runif (n, -0.1, 0.1), runif (n, -0.1, 0.1)) y <- cbind (runif (2 * n, -0.1, 0.1), runif (2 * n, -0.1, 0.1)) colnames (x) <- colnames (y) <- c ("x", "y") d0 <- geodist (x) # A 50-by-50 matrix d1 <- geodist (x, y) # A 50-by-100 matrix d2 <- geodist (x, sequential = TRUE) # Vector of length 49 d2 <- geodist (x, sequential = TRUE, pad = TRUE) # Vector of length 50 d0_2 <- geodist (x, measure = "geodesic") # nanometre-accurate version of d0